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Farooq

October

Home2019October

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY) and LabCentral, an innovative, shared laboratory space designed as a launchpad for life sciences and biotech startups, today announced that Carmine Therapeutics and STIMIT are the winners of Bristol-Myers Squibb's 2019 Golden Tickets for LabCentral.

Boehringer Ingelheim presented promising preclinical data from its pan-KRAS program including the novel, oral inhibitor BI 1701963 at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Boston, USA(1). Based on these results the compound has been advanced to Phase I clinical testing alone and in combination with trametinib in patients with different types of advanced solid tumors with KRAS mutations.

AstraZeneca has agreed the sale and licence of the commercial rights to Seroquel (quetiapine fumarate immediate release) and Seroquel XR (quetiapine fumarate extended release) in Europe and Russia to Cheplapharm Arzneimittel GmbH (Cheplapharm). Seroquel and Seroquel XR, used primarily to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have lost their compound patent protection in Europe and Russia.

Recent progress in passive radiative cooling technologies has substantially improved cooling performance under direct sunlight. Yet, experimental demonstrations of daytime radiative cooling still severely underperform in comparison with the theoretical potential due to considerable solar absorption and poor thermal insulation at the emitter. In this work, we developed polyethylene aerogel (PEA)—a solar-reflecting (92.2% solar weighted reflectance at 6 mm thick), infrared-transparent (79.9% transmittance between 8 and 13 μm at 6 mm thick), and low-thermal-conductivity (kPEA = 28 mW/mK) material that can be integrated with existing emitters to address these challenges. Using an experimental setup that includes the custom-fabricated PEA, we demonstrate a daytime ambient temperature cooling power of 96 W/m2 and passive cooling up to 13°C below ambient temperature around solar noon. This work could greatly improve the performance of existing passive radiative coolers for air conditioning an..

The East Asian monsoon plays an integral role in human society, yet its geological history and controlling processes are poorly understood. Using a general circulation model and geological data, we explore the drivers controlling the evolution of the monsoon system over the past 150 million years. In contrast to previous work, we find that the monsoon is controlled primarily by changes in paleogeography, with little influence from atmospheric CO2. We associate increased precipitation since the Late Cretaceous with the gradual uplift of the Himalayan-Tibetan region, transitioning from an ITCZ-dominated monsoon to a sea breeze–dominated monsoon. The rising region acted as a mechanical barrier to cold and dry continental air advecting into the region, leading to increasing influence of moist air from the Indian Ocean/South China Sea. We show that, apart from a dry period in the middle Cretaceous, a monsoon system has existed in East Asia since at least the Early Cretaceous.

Although electromagnetic brain stimulation is a promising treatment in neurology and psychiatry, clinical outcomes are variable, and underlying mechanisms are ill-defined, which impedes the development of new effective stimulation protocols. Here, we show, in vivo and ex vivo, that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at low-intensity (LI-rTMS) induces axon outgrowth and synaptogenesis to repair a neural circuit. This repair depends on stimulation pattern, with complex biomimetic patterns being particularly effective, and the presence of cryptochrome, a putative magnetoreceptor. Only repair-promoting LI-rTMS patterns up-regulated genes involved in neuronal repair; almost 40% of were cryptochrome targets. Our data open a new framework to understand the mechanisms underlying structural neuroplasticity induced by electromagnetic stimulation. Rather than neuronal activation by induced electric currents, we propose that weak magnetic fields act through cryptochrome to activate cellu..

While machine learning has been making enormous strides in many technical areas, it is still massively underused in transmission electron microscopy. To address this, a convolutional neural network model was developed for reliable classification of crystal structures from small numbers of electron images and diffraction patterns with no preferred orientation. Diffraction data containing 571,340 individual crystals divided among seven families, 32 genera, and 230 space groups were used to train the network. Despite the highly imbalanced dataset, the network narrows down the space groups to the top two with over 70% confidence in the worst case and up to 95% in the common cases. As examples, we benchmarked against alloys to two-dimensional materials to cross-validate our deep-learning model against high-resolution transmission electron images and diffraction patterns. We present this result both as a research tool and deep-learning application for diffraction analysis.

Clustering is a technique to analyze empirical data, with a major application for biomedical research. Essentially, clustering finds groups of related points in a dataset. However, results depend on both metrics for point-to-point similarity and rules for point-to-group association. Non-appropriate metrics and rules can lead to artifacts, especially in case of multiple groups with heterogeneous structure. In this work, we propose a clustering algorithm that evaluates the properties of paths between points (rather than point-to-point similarity) and solves a global optimization problem, finding solutions not obtainable by methods relying on local choices. Moreover, our algorithm is trainable. Hence, it can be adapted and adopted for specific datasets and applications by providing examples of valid and invalid paths to train a path classifier. We demonstrate its applicability to identify heterogeneous groups in challenging synthetic datasets, segment highly nonconvex immune cells in conf..

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), one of the leading causes of childhood-onset blindness, is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in several genes including RPE65. In this study, we performed CRISPR-Cas9–mediated therapeutic correction of a disease-associated nonsense mutation in Rpe65 in rd12 mice, a model of human LCA. Subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus carrying CRISPR-Cas9 and donor DNA resulted in >1% homology-directed repair and ~1.6% deletion of the pathogenic stop codon in Rpe65 in retinal pigment epithelial tissues of rd12 mice. The a- and b-waves of electroretinograms were recovered to levels up to 21.2 ± 4.1% and 39.8 ± 3.2% of their wild-type mice counterparts upon bright stimuli after dark adaptation 7 months after injection. There was no definite evidence of histologic perturbation or tumorigenesis during 7 months of observation. Collectively, we present the first therapeutic correction of an Rpe65 nonsense mutation using CRISPR-Cas9, providing new insight f..

Does Earth’s mantle drive plates, or do plates drive mantle flow? This long-standing question may be ill posed, however, as both the lithosphere and mantle belong to a single self-organizing system. Alternatively, this question is better recast as follows: Does the dynamic balance between plates and mantle change over long-term tectonic reorganizations, and at what spatial wavelengths are those processes operating? A hurdle in answering this question is in designing dynamic models of mantle convection with realistic tectonic behavior evolving over supercontinent cycles. By devising these models, we find that slabs pull plates at rapid rates and tear continents apart, with keels of continents only slowing down their drift when they are not attached to a subducting plate. Our models show that the tectonic tessellation varies at a higher degree than mantle flow, which partly unlocks the conceptualization of plate tectonics and mantle convection as a unique, self-consistent system.