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Farooq

2020

Home2020

Nature, Published online: 10 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00339-3
Immune cells whose genomes have been altered with CRISPR are well-tolerated by three people with cancer.

Nature, Published online: 08 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2017-2
Publisher Correction: Processive extrusion of polypeptide loops by a Hsp100 disaggregase

Nature, Published online: 08 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00365-1
European Space Agency’s Solar Orbiter will contribute to a ‘golden age’ of solar science.

Nature, Published online: 07 February 2020; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00357-1
Organic chemist whose rules aided the synthesis of natural products.

Quantum memory capable of storage and retrieval of flying photons on demand is crucial for developing quantum information technologies. However, the devices needed for long-distance links are different from those envisioned for local processing. We present the first hybrid quantum memory-enabled network by demonstrating the interconnection and simultaneous operation of two types of quantum memory: an atomic ensemble-based memory and an all-optical Loop memory. Interfacing the quantum memories at room temperature, we observe a well-preserved quantum correlation and a violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Furthermore, we demonstrate the creation and storage of a fully-operable heralded photon chain state that can achieve memory-built-in combining, swapping, splitting, tuning, and chopping single photons in a chain temporally. Such a quantum network allows atomic excitations to be generated, stored, and converted to broadband photons, which are then transferred to the next node, stored,..

The contrast of an image can be degraded by the presence of background light and sensor noise. To overcome this degradation, quantum illumination protocols have been theorized that exploit the spatial correlations between photon pairs. Here, we demonstrate the first full-field imaging system using quantum illumination by an enhanced detection protocol. With our current technology, we achieve a rejection of background and stray light of up to 5.8 and also report an image contrast improvement up to a factor of 11, which is resilient to both environmental noise and transmission losses. The quantum illumination protocol differs from usual quantum schemes in that the advantage is maintained even in the presence of noise and loss. Our approach may enable laboratory-based quantum imaging to be applied to real-world applications where the suppression of background light and noise is important, such as imaging under low photon flux and quantum LIDAR.

Secondary drug resistance stems from dynamic clonal evolution during the development of a prior primary resistance. This collateral type of resistance is often a characteristic of cancer recurrence. Yet, mechanisms that drive this collateral resistance and their drug-specific trajectories are still poorly understood. Using resistance selection and small-scale pharmacological screens, we find that cancer cells with primary acquired resistance to the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel often develop tolerance to epidermal growth factor receptor–tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), leading to formation of more stable resistant cell populations. We show that paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells follow distinct selection paths under EGFR-TKIs by enriching the stemness program, developing a highly glycolytic adaptive stress response, and rewiring an apoptosis control pathway. Collectively, our work demonstrates the alterations in cellular state stemming from paclitaxel failure that resul..

The direct imaging of current density vector distributions in thin films has remained a daring challenge. Here, we report that an inhomogeneous current distribution can be mapped directly by the trajectories of magnetic half-skyrmions driven by an electrical current in Pt/Co/Ta trilayer, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The half-skyrmion carries a topological charge of 0.5 due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which leads to the half-skyrmion Hall effect. The Hall angle of half-skyrmions is independent of current density and can be reduced to as small as 4° by tuning the thickness of the Co layer. The Hall angle is so small that the elongation path of half-skyrmion approximately delineates the invisible current flow as demonstrated in both a continuous film and a curved track. Our work provides a practical technique to directly map inhomogeneous current distribution even in complex geometries for both fundamental research and industrial applications.

The oxygen redox (OR) activity is conventionally considered detrimental to the stability and kinetics of batteries. However, OR reactions are often confused by irreversible oxygen oxidation. Here, based on high-efficiency mapping of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of both the transition metal and oxygen, we distinguish the lattice OR in Na0.6[Li0.2Mn0.8]O2 and compare it with Na2/3[Mg1/3Mn2/3]O2. Both systems display strong lattice OR activities but with distinct electrochemical stability. The comparison shows that the substantial capacity drop in Na0.6[Li0.2Mn0.8]O2 stems from non-lattice oxygen oxidations, and its voltage decay from an increasing Mn redox contribution upon cycling, contrasting those in Na2/3[Mg1/3Mn2/3]O2. We conclude that lattice OR is not the ringleader of the stability issue. Instead, irreversible oxygen oxidation and the changing cationic reactions lead to the capacity and voltage fade. We argue that lattice OR and other oxygen activities should/could be stud..

A newly identified microbial rhodopsin, NM-R3, from the marine flavobacterium Nonlabens marinus, was recently shown to drive chloride ion uptake, extending our understanding of the diversity of mechanisms for biological energy conversion. To clarify the mechanism underlying its function, we characterized the crystal structures of NM-R3 in both the dark state and early intermediate photoexcited states produced by laser pulses of different intensities and temperatures. The displacement of chloride ions at five different locations in the model reflected the detailed anion-conduction pathway, and the activity-related key residues—Cys105, Ser60, Gln224, and Phe90—were identified by mutation assays and spectroscopy. Comparisons with other proteins, including a closely related outward sodium ion pump, revealed key motifs and provided structural insights into light-driven ion transport across membranes by the NQ subfamily of rhodopsins. Unexpectedly, the response of the retinal in NM-R3 to pho..