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Sandoz today announced that it has successfully completed the acquisition of the Japanese business of Aspen Global Incorporated (AGI), a wholly owned subsidiary of Aspen Pharmacare Holdings Limited. Sandoz has acquired all of the shares in Aspen Japan K.K. and associated assets held by AGI.

Today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Palforzia [Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Allergen Powder-dnfp] to mitigate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, that may occur with accidental exposure to peanuts. Treatment with Palforzia may be initiated in individuals ages 4 through 17 years with a confirmed diagnosis of peanut allergy and may be continued in individuals 4 years of age and older.

We report a dual-mode organic photodetector (OPD) that has a trilayer visible light absorber/optical spacer/near-infrared (NIR) light absorber configuration. In the presence of NIR light, photocurrent is produced in the NIR light–absorbing layer due to the trap-assisted charge injection at the organic/cathode interface at a reverse bias. In the presence of visible light, photocurrent is produced in the visible light–absorbing layer, enabled by the trap-assisted charge injection at the anode/organic interface at a forward bias. A high responsivity of >10 A/W is obtained in both short and long wavelengths. The dual-mode OPD exhibits an NIR light response operated at a reverse bias and a visible light response operated at a forward bias, with a high specific detectivity of ~1013 Jones in both NIR and visible light ranges. A bias-switchable spectral response OPD offers an attractive option for applications in environmental pollution detection, bioimaging process, wellness, and security mon..

Closed-form, interpretable mathematical models have been instrumental for advancing our understanding of the world; with the data revolution, we may now be in a position to uncover new such models for many systems from physics to the social sciences. However, to deal with increasing amounts of data, we need “machine scientists” that are able to extract these models automatically from data. Here, we introduce a Bayesian machine scientist, which establishes the plausibility of models using explicit approximations to the exact marginal posterior over models and establishes its prior expectations about models by learning from a large empirical corpus of mathematical expressions. It explores the space of models using Markov chain Monte Carlo. We show that this approach uncovers accurate models for synthetic and real data and provides out-of-sample predictions that are more accurate than those of existing approaches and of other nonparametric methods.

Given the societal concern about the presence of nano- and microplastics in the environment, our nescience with respect to in situ effects is disturbing. Data on long-term implications under ecologically realistic conditions are particularly important for the risk assessment of nano- and microplastics. Here, we evaluate the long-term (up to 15 months) effects of five concentrations of nano- and microplastics on the natural recolonization of sediments by a macroinvertebrate community. Effects were assessed on the community composition, population sizes and species diversity. Nano- and microplastics adversely affected the abundance of macroinvertebrates after 15 months, which was caused by a reduction in the number of Naididae at the highest concentration (5% plastic per sediment dry weight). For some other taxa, smaller but still significant positive effects were found over time, altogether demonstrating that nano- and microplastics affected the community composition.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to modulate brain activity and behavior in humans. Still, stimulation effects substantially vary across studies and individuals, thereby restricting the large-scale application of TMS in research or clinical settings. We revealed that low-frequency stimulation had opposite impact on the functional connectivity of sensory and cognitive brain regions. Biophysical modeling then identified a neuronal mechanism underlying these region-specific effects. Stimulation of the frontal cortex decreased local inhibition and disrupted feedforward and feedback connections. Conversely, identical stimulation increased local inhibition and enhanced forward signaling in the occipital cortex. Last, we identified functional integration as a macroscale network parameter to predict the region-specific effect of stimulation in individual subjects. In summary, we revealed how TMS modulation critically depends on the connectivity profile of target ..

Machine learning has been getting attention in recent years as a tool to process big data generated by the ubiquitous sensors used in daily life. High-speed, low-energy computing machines are in demand to enable real-time artificial intelligence processing of such data. These requirements challenge the current metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which is limited by Moore’s law approaching its end and the communication bottleneck in conventional computing architecture. Novel computing concepts, architectures, and devices are thus strongly needed to accelerate data-intensive applications. Here, we show that a cross-point resistive memory circuit with feedback configuration can train traditional machine learning algorithms such as linear regression and logistic regression in just one step by computing the pseudoinverse matrix of the data within the memory. One-step learning is further supported by simulations of the prediction of housing price in Boston and the training of a two-layer n..

Traditionally, a catalyst functions by direct interaction with reactants. In a new noncontact catalytic system (NCCS), an intermediate produced by one catalytic reaction serves as an intermediary to enable an independent reaction to proceed. An example is the selective oxidation of ethylbenzene, which could not occur in the presence of either solubilized Au nanoclusters or cyclooctene, but proceeded readily when both were present simultaneously. The Au-initiated selective epoxidation of cyclooctene generated cyclooctenyl peroxy and oxy radicals that served as intermediaries to initiate the ethylbenzene oxidation. This combined system effectively extended the catalytic effect of Au. The reaction mechanism was supported by reaction kinetics and spin trap experiments. NCCS enables parallel reactions to proceed without the constraints of stoichiometric relationships, offering new degrees of freedom in industrial hydrocarbon co-oxidation processes.

Accumulating somatic mutations have been implicated in age-related cellular degeneration and death. Because of their random nature and low abundance, somatic mutations are difficult to detect except in single cells or clonal cell lineages. Here, we show that in single hepatocytes from human liver, an organ exposed to high levels of genotoxic stress, somatic mutation frequencies are high and increase substantially with age. Considerably lower mutation frequencies were observed in liver stem cells (LSCs) and organoids derived from them. Mutational spectra in hepatocytes showed signatures of oxidative stress that were different in old age and in LSCs. A considerable number of mutations were found in functional parts of the liver genome, suggesting that somatic mutagenesis could causally contribute to the age-related functional decline and increased incidence of disease of human liver. These results underscore the importance of stem cells in maintaining genome sequence integrity in aging s..

Many biological organisms can tune their mechanical properties to adapt to environments in multistable modes, but the current synthetic materials, with bistable states, have a limited ability to alter mechanical stiffness. Here, we constructed programmable organohydrogels with multistable mechanical states by an on-demand modular assembly of noneutectic phase transition components inside microrganogel inclusions. The resultant multiphase organohydrogel exhibits precisely controllable thermo-induced stepwise switching (i.e., triple, quadruple, and quintuple switching) mechanics and a self-healing property. The organohydrogel was introduced into the design of soft-matter machines, yielding a soft gripper with adaptive grasping through stiffness matching with various objects under pneumatic-thermal hybrid actuation. Meanwhile, a programmable adhesion of octopus-inspired robotic tentacles on a wide range of surface morphologies was realized. These results demonstrated the applicability of ..