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Archive by Category "INDUSTRY NEWS" (Page 2)

HomeArchive by Category "INDUSTRY NEWS" (Page 2)

Light-matter interactions in semiconductors are uniformly treated within the electric dipole approximation; multipolar interactions are considered “forbidden.” We experimentally demonstrate that this approximation inadequately describes light emission in two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs), solution processable semiconductors with promising optoelectronic properties. By exploiting the highly oriented crystal structure, we use energy-momentum spectroscopies to demonstrate that an exciton-like sideband in 2D HOIPs exhibits a multipolar radiation pattern with highly directed emission. Electromagnetic and quantum-mechanical analyses indicate that this emission originates from an out-of-plane magnetic dipole transition arising from the 2D character of electronic states. Symmetry arguments and temperature-dependent measurements suggest a dynamic symmetry-breaking mechanism that is active over a broad temperature range. These results challenge the paradigm of ele..

A newly identified microbial rhodopsin, NM-R3, from the marine flavobacterium Nonlabens marinus, was recently shown to drive chloride ion uptake, extending our understanding of the diversity of mechanisms for biological energy conversion. To clarify the mechanism underlying its function, we characterized the crystal structures of NM-R3 in both the dark state and early intermediate photoexcited states produced by laser pulses of different intensities and temperatures. The displacement of chloride ions at five different locations in the model reflected the detailed anion-conduction pathway, and the activity-related key residues—Cys105, Ser60, Gln224, and Phe90—were identified by mutation assays and spectroscopy. Comparisons with other proteins, including a closely related outward sodium ion pump, revealed key motifs and provided structural insights into light-driven ion transport across membranes by the NQ subfamily of rhodopsins. Unexpectedly, the response of the retinal in NM-R3 to pho..

Retinal organoids (ROs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide potential opportunities for studying human retinal development and disorders; however, to what extent ROs recapitulate the epigenetic features of human retinal development is unknown. In this study, we systematically profiled chromatin accessibility and transcriptional dynamics over long-term human retinal and RO development. Our results showed that ROs recapitulated the human retinogenesis to a great extent, but divergent chromatin features were also discovered. We further reconstructed the transcriptional regulatory network governing human and RO retinogenesis in vivo. Notably, NFIB and THRA were identified as regulators in human retinal development. The chromatin modifications between developing human and mouse retina were also cross-analyzed. Notably, we revealed an enriched bivalent modification of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in human but not in murine retinogenesis, suggesting a more dedicated epi..

The contrast of an image can be degraded by the presence of background light and sensor noise. To overcome this degradation, quantum illumination protocols have been theorized that exploit the spatial correlations between photon pairs. Here, we demonstrate the first full-field imaging system using quantum illumination by an enhanced detection protocol. With our current technology, we achieve a rejection of background and stray light of up to 5.8 and also report an image contrast improvement up to a factor of 11, which is resilient to both environmental noise and transmission losses. The quantum illumination protocol differs from usual quantum schemes in that the advantage is maintained even in the presence of noise and loss. Our approach may enable laboratory-based quantum imaging to be applied to real-world applications where the suppression of background light and noise is important, such as imaging under low photon flux and quantum LIDAR.

The first sequenced genome was that of the 3569-nucleotide single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) bacteriophage MS2. Despite the recent accumulation of vast amounts of DNA and RNA sequence data, only 12 representative ssRNA phage genome sequences are available from the NCBI Genome database (June 2019). The difficulty in detecting RNA phages in metagenomic datasets raises questions as to their abundance, taxonomic structure, and ecological importance. In this study, we iteratively applied profile hidden Markov models to detect conserved ssRNA phage proteins in 82 publicly available metatranscriptomic datasets generated from activated sludge and aquatic environments. We identified 15,611 nonredundant ssRNA phage sequences, including 1015 near-complete genomes. This expansion in the number of known sequences enabled us to complete a phylogenetic assessment of both sequences identified in this study and known ssRNA phage genomes. Our expansion of these viruses from two environments suggests that they..

Homologous recombination is exquisitely activated only during specific cell phases. In the G1 phase, homologous recombination activity is completely suppressed. According to previous reports, the activation of homologous recombination during specific cell phases depends on the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). However, the precise regulatory mechanism and target substrates of CDK1 for this regulation have not been completely determined. Here, we report that the budding yeast CDK1, Cdc28, phosphorylates the major homologous recombination regulators Rad51 and Rad52. This phosphorylation occurs in the G2/M phase by Cdc28 in combination with G2/M phase cyclins. Nonphosphorylatable mutations in Rad51 and Rad52 impair the DNA binding affinity of Rad51 and the affinity between Rad52 rings that leads to their interaction. Collectively, our data provide detailed insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell cycle–dependent homologous recombination activation in eukaryotic ce..

Van der Waals (vdW) materials with magnetic order have been heavily pursued for fundamental physics as well as for device design. Despite the rapid advances, so far, they are mainly insulating or semiconducting, and none of them has a high electronic mobility—a property that is rare in layered vdW materials in general. The realization of a high-mobility vdW material that also exhibits magnetic order would open the possibility for novel magnetic twistronic or spintronic devices. Here, we report very high carrier mobility in the layered vdW antiferromagnet GdTe3. The electron mobility is beyond 60,000 cm2 V–1 s–1, which is the highest among all known layered magnetic materials, to the best of our knowledge. Among all known vdW materials, the mobility of bulk GdTe3 is comparable to that of black phosphorus. By mechanical exfoliation, we further demonstrate that GdTe3 can be exfoliated to ultrathin flakes of three monolayers.

Microscale hydrogels consisting of macromolecular networks in aqueous continuous phases have received increasing attention because of their potential use in tissue engineering, cell encapsulation and for the storage and release of cargo molecules. However, for applications targeting intracellular delivery, their micrometer-scale size is unsuitable for effective cellular uptake. Nanoscale analogs of such materials are thus required for this key area. Here, we describe a microfluidics/nanofluidics-based strategy for generating monodisperse nanosized water-in-oil emulsions with controllable sizes ranging from 2500 ± 110 nm down to 51 ± 6 nm. We demonstrate that these nanoemulsions can act as templates to form protein nanogels stabilized by supramolecular fibrils from three different proteins. We further show that these nanoparticles have the ability to penetrate mammalian cell membranes and deliver intracellular cargo. Due to their biocompatibility and lack of toxicity, natural protein-ba..

Oxide ceramics are considered to be nonconductive brittle materials, which limits their applications in emerging fields such as conductive textiles. Here, we show a facile domino-cascade reduction method that enables rapid transformation of ceramic nanofiber textiles from insulation to conduction at room temperature. After putting dimethylacetamide-wetted textiles, including TiO2, SnO2, BaTiO3, and Li0.33La0.56TiO3, on lithium plates, the self-driven chemical reactions induce defects in oxides. These defects initiate an interfacial insulation-to-conductive phase transition, which triggers the domino-cascade reduction from the interface to the whole textile. Correspondingly, the conductivity of the textile sharply increased from 0 to 40 S/m over a period of 1 min. The modified oxide textiles exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance when substituting the metallic current collectors of lithium batteries. This room temperature reduction method can protect the nanostructures while induc..

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) can improve the diffusivity of nanoparticles (NPs) in biological hydrogels, while extended PEG chains severely impede cellular uptake of NPs. Inspired by invasive germs with flagellum-driven mucus-penetrating and fimbriae-mediated epithelium-adhering abilities, we developed germ-mimetic NPs (GMNPs) to overcome multiple barriers in mucosal and tumor tissues. In vitro studies and computational simulations revealed that the tip-specific extended PEG chains on GMNP functioned similarly to flagella, facilitating GMNP diffusion (up to 83.0-fold faster than their counterparts). Meanwhile, the packed PEG chains on the bodies of GMNP mediated strong adhesive interactions with cells similarly to the fimbriae, preserving cellular uptake efficiency. The in vivo results proved the superior tumor permeability and improved oral bioavailability provided by the GMNP (21.9-fold over administration of crystalline drugs). These findings offer useful guidelines for the rational ..